The convergence of the global smoking, COPD, tuberculosis, HIV, and respiratory infection epidemics

Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2010 Sep;24(3):693-703. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2010.04.012.


At the beginning of the 21st century, we are facing the convergence of several epidemics. These include tobacco smoking, tuberculosis, HIV infection, influenza, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These epidemics interact by way of increasing disease susceptibility and worsening outcomes. To control these interacting epidemics, we need to better understand each infection and how it influences the others. Multifaceted approaches will be necessary to reduce the impact on those in developing nations most likely to be affected by the convergence of all epidemics.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Humans
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Smoking / adverse effects*
  • Tuberculosis / epidemiology*