Cultured V79 Chinese hamster fibroblast cells were exposed to continuous radiation, frequency 7.7 GHz, power density 0.5 mW/cm2 for 15, 30 and 60 min. The effect of microwave radiation on cell survival and on the incidence and frequency of micronuclei and structural chromosome aberrations was investigated. The decrease in the number of irradiated V79 cell colonies was related to the power density applied and to the time of exposure. In comparison with the control samples there was a significantly higher frequency of specific chromosome aberrations such as dicentric and ring chromosomes in irradiated cells. The presence of micronuclei in irradiated cells confirmed the changes that had occurred in chromosome structure. These results suggest that microwave radiation can induce damage in the structure of chromosomal DNA.