Prostate cancer is one of the most common malignancies in males throughout the world, and its incidence is increasing in Asian countries. We carried out a genome-wide association study and replication study using 4,584 Japanese men with prostate cancer and 8,801 control subjects. From the thirty-one associated SNPs reported in previous genome-wide association studies in European populations, we confirmed the association of nine SNPs at P < 1.0 x 10(-7) and ten SNPs at P < 0.05 in the Japanese population. The remaining 12 SNPs showed no association (P > 0.05). In addition, we report here five new loci for prostate cancer susceptibility, at 5p15 (lambda-corrected probability P(GC) = 3.9 x 10(-18)), GPRC6A/RFX6 (P(GC) = 1.6 x 10(-12)), 13q22 (P(GC) = 2.8 x 10(-9)), C2orf43 (P(GC) = 7.5 x 10(-8)) and FOXP4 (P(GC) = 7.6 x 10(-8)). These findings advance our understanding of the genetic basis of prostate carcinogenesis and also highlight the genetic heterogeneity of prostate cancer susceptibility among different ethnic populations.