The growing incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection in inpatient and outpatient settings

Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010 Aug;4(4):409-16. doi: 10.1586/egh.10.48.


Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a leading cause of nosocomial infections, with disease severity ranging from mild diarrhea to fulminant colitis. The incidence and severity of CDI has been on the rise over the last 10-20 years, with CDI being increasingly described outside healthcare settings and in populations previously thought to be at low risk. There has also been an increase in the morbidity, mortality and economic burden associated with CDI in the last several years. This increasing incidence and severity is thought to be at least partially due to frequent antibiotic use and the emergence of a hypervirulent C. difficile strain.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects
  • Clostridium Infections / epidemiology*
  • Clostridium Infections / microbiology
  • Clostridium difficile / pathogenicity*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / epidemiology*
  • Community-Acquired Infections / microbiology
  • Cross Infection / epidemiology*
  • Cross Infection / microbiology
  • Diarrhea / epidemiology
  • Diarrhea / microbiology
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / epidemiology
  • Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous / microbiology
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Inpatients*
  • Outpatients*
  • Risk Factors
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Time Factors
  • Virulence


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents