Effect of Food Azo Dyes Tartrazine and Carmoisine on Biochemical Parameters Related to Renal, Hepatic Function and Oxidative Stress Biomarkers in Young Male Rats

Food Chem Toxicol. 2010 Oct;48(10):2994-9. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.039. Epub 2010 Aug 3.


Tartrazine and carmoisine are an organic azo dyes widely used in food products, drugs and cosmetics. The present study conducted to evaluate the toxic effect of these coloring food additives; on renal, hepatic function, lipid profile, blood glucose, body-weight gain and biomarkers of oxidative stress in tissue. Tartrazine and carmoisine were administered orally in two doses, one low and the other high dose for 30 days followed by serum and tissue sample collection for determination of ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose in serum and estimation of GSH, catalase, SOD and MDA in liver tissue in male albino rat. Our data showed a significant increase in ALT, AST, ALP, urea, creatinine total protein and albumin in serum of rats dosed with tartrazine and carmoisine compared to control rats and these significant change were more apparent in high doses than low, GSH, SOD and Catalase were decreased and MDA increased in tissue homogenate in rats consumed high tartrazine and both doses of carmoisine. We concluded that tartrazine and carmoisine affect adversely and alter biochemical markers in vital organs e.g. liver and kidney not only at higher doses but also at low doses.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Proteins / metabolism
  • Cholesterol / blood
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Enzymes / blood
  • Food Coloring Agents / toxicity*
  • Kidney Function Tests
  • Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects
  • Lipids / blood
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Male
  • Malondialdehyde / blood
  • Naphthalenesulfonates / toxicity*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Rats
  • Tartrazine / toxicity*


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Proteins
  • Enzymes
  • Food Coloring Agents
  • Lipids
  • Naphthalenesulfonates
  • Malondialdehyde
  • Cholesterol
  • azo rubin S
  • Tartrazine