The newly developed rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) provides the possibility of in vivo, in situ mass spectrometric tissue analysis. The experimental setup for REIMS is characterized in detail for the first time, and the description and testing of an equipment capable of in vivo analysis is presented. The spectra obtained by various standard surgical equipments were compared and found highly specific to the histological type of the tissues. The tissue analysis is based on their different phospholipid distribution; the identification algorithm uses a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The characterized method was proven to be sensitive for any perturbation such as age or diet in rats, but it was still perfectly suitable for tissue identification. Tissue identification accuracy higher than 97% was achieved with the PCA/LDA algorithm using a spectral database collected from various tissue species. In vivo, ex vivo, and post mortem REIMS studies were performed, and the method was found to be applicable for histological tissue analysis during surgical interventions, endoscopy, or after surgery in pathology.