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. 2010 Aug;117(8):1654, 1654.e1-4.
doi: 10.1016/j.ophtha.2010.01.052.

Triamcinolone Crystal Size

Free PMC article

Triamcinolone Crystal Size

Mark E Kleinman et al. Ophthalmology. .
Free PMC article

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Ten of 28 eyes from patients with various retinal diseases (diabetic macular edema, cystoid macular edema, age-related macular degeneration, branch vein occlusion, and non-AMD related choroidal neovascularization, CNV) were treated with a single injection of IV C-PFTA and developed acute and severe elevations in IOP measuring 29.1±13.1 mmHg from baseline. ARMD = age-related macular degeneration; BVO = branch vein occlusion; CME = cystoid macular edema; CNV = choroidal neovascularization; C-PFTA = compounded PFTA; DME = diabetic macular edema; IOP = intraocular pressure; IV = intravitreous.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Crystal size analyses of TA (Kenalog) and C-PFTA samples were conducted using techniques in phase-contrast microscopy (left) and high-accuracy laser diffraction (right). With microscopy, TA crystals appeared uniform in aggregates (A) in comparison to the mix of small (arrows) and large (arrowheads) crystal sizes in the C-PFTA samples of the affected lot (B) and the raw stock powder (C) (scale bar, 20 μm). With the more advanced laser diffraction technique, TA crystal diameter distributions were unimodal with a peak at 26.1 μm, whereas studies of C-PFTA samples of the affected lot and the raw stock powder demonstrate decreased particle size distributions and increased aggregate formation. C-PFTA = compounded PFTA; PFTA = preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide; TA = Kenalog.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Further laser diffraction studies conducted on other commercial sources of C-PFTA demonstrated wide variability with regards to crystal size distributions and aggregate formation; however, a trend of decreased individual crystal size was identified in all PFTA samples. C-PFTA = compounded PFTA; PFTA = preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Laser diffraction particle analyses of P-PFTA (Triesence) (A) and on-site pre-procedural filtered TA (B) revealed improved retention of unimodal distributions and crystal size parameters compared to the C-PFTA samples. C-PFTA = compounded PFTA; PFTA = preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide; P-PFTA = pharmaceutical manufactured PFTA; TA = Kenalog.

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