A total of 2,793 courses of treatment with seven beta-lactam antibiotics were administered to 121 cystic fibrosis patients chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the patients were evaluated with respect to clinical hypersensitivity reactions. Seventy-five patients (62%) experienced 125 reactions, for an overall frequency (based on the number of courses) of 4.5%. Immediate reactions occurred in 34 patients (28.1%) during 53 courses (1.9%). The highest rate of reactions involved piperacillin (50.9% of patients), and the lowest rate involved imipenem and aztreonam (4.0% and 6.5% of patients, respectively); intermediate reaction rates were noted for carbenicillin (23.6% of patients), azlocillin (20.8%), cefsulodin (17.1%), and ceftazidime (13.0%). Cross-reactivity did not appear to be a major problem. Reactions to aztreonam seemed to be restricted to a small group of patients with a high propensity for beta-lactam hypersensitivity.