The overall survival of lung cancer patients is disappointingly low. This is due to several factors, including the lack of an effective screening strategy to detect tumors at a potentially curable early stage, a marked resistance of lung cancer cells to drug treatment and a still superficial knowledge about the multifactorial cellular networks that are activated or suppressed during cancer progression. Furthermore, the armamentarium of clinicians and researchers in the field does not yet include reliable biomarkers to predict tumor response to treatment and foresee the natural history of the disease. In the present situation, a potential breakthrough is presented by proteomics technologies with the potential to discover relevant biomarkers which can be accurately quantified in multiplexed assays. Proteomics field can also contribute greatly in the understanding of mechanisms in tumor progression and treatment response. In this review we will describe the work that is being done in the field of lung cancer proteomics, focusing on clinically relevant questions that need to be addressed and on the possible applications of novel technologies.
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