A historical-prospective cohort study was conducted of 729 male employees of plants manufacturing 4,4'-bipyridyl. The cohort was studied because employment in some of the plants had been linked to malignant and nonmalignant skin lesions attributed to exposure to tarry by-products. The overall mortality experience of the cohort did not show any statistically significant findings. More-detailed analysis of subdivision of the cohort gave results that justified further inquiry into lung cancer incidence. A nested case-referent study did not indicate that any occupational factor other than employment in a bipyridyl plant was related to the incidence of lung cancer. The epidemiologic, toxicologic, and industrial hygiene information was assessed, and it was concluded that there was no evidence of a plausible occupational hazard of lung cancer to the bipyridyl workers, but that a follow-up of the cohort after an interval of five years should be undertaken.