The aim of this review was to analyze the potential effects of environmental chemicals on homeostatic control related to glycemia and energy balance. Many of the environmental chemicals can mimic or interfere with the action of hormones and are generally referred to as "endocrine disruptors". Among these compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, phthalates and bisphenol-A have been correlated with alterations in blood glucose homeostasis in humans. In rodents it has been demonstrated that small doses of bisphenol-A have profound effects on glucose metabolism. Therefore, this altered blood glucose homeostasis may enhance the development of type 2 diabetes.