Protein and carbohydrate supplementation during 5-day aerobic training enhanced plasma volume expansion and thermoregulatory adaptation in young men

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Oct;109(4):1247-55. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00577.2010. Epub 2010 Aug 5.


We examined whether protein and carbohydrate (CHO) supplementation during 5-day training enhanced plasma volume (PV) expansion and thermoregulatory and cardiovascular adaptations in young men. Eighteen men [age 23 ± 4 (SD) yr] were divided into two groups according to supplements: placebo (CNT: 0.93 kcal/kg, 0.00 g protein/kg, n = 9) and protein and CHO (Pro-CHO: 3.6 kcal/kg, 0.36 protein/kg, n = 9). Subjects in both groups performed a cycling exercise at 70% peak oxygen consumption rate (VO2peak), 30 min/day, for 5 consecutive days at 30°C ambient temperature and 50% relative humidity and took either a placebo or Pro-CHO within 10 min after exercise for each day. Before and after training, PV at rest, heart rate (HR), and esophageal temperature (T(es)) during 30-min exercise at 65% of pretraining VO2peak in the same condition as training were determined. Also, the sensitivity of the chest sweat rate (ΔSR/ΔT(es)) and forearm vascular conductance (ΔFVC/ΔT(es)) in response to increased T(es) were determined. After training, PV and cardiac stroke volume (SV) at rest increased in both groups (P < 0.001) but the increases were twofold higher in Pro-CHO than CNT (P = 0.007 and P = 0.078, respectively). The increases in HR from 5 to 30 min and T(es) from 0 to 30 min of exercise were attenuated after training in both groups with greater attenuation in Pro-CHO than CNT (P = 0.002 and P = 0.072, respectively). ΔSR/ΔT(es) increased in CNT (P = 0.052) and Pro-CHO (P < 0.001) and the increases were higher in Pro-CHO than CNT (P = 0.018). ΔFVC/ΔT(es) increased in Pro-CHO (P < 0.001), whereas not in CNT (P = 0.16). Thus protein-CHO supplementation during 5-day training enhanced PV expansion and thermoregulatory adaptation and, thereby, the reduction in heat and cardiovascular strain in young men.

Publication types

  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adaptation, Physiological
  • Adult
  • Analysis of Variance
  • Bicycling
  • Body Temperature Regulation*
  • Dietary Carbohydrates / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Exercise*
  • Heat Stress Disorders / blood
  • Heat Stress Disorders / physiopathology
  • Heat Stress Disorders / prevention & control*
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Plasma Volume*
  • Serum Albumin / metabolism
  • Sweating
  • Time Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Carbohydrates
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Serum Albumin