Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a dual-agent-loaded PLGA nanoparticulate drug delivery system containing doxorubicin (DOX) and indocyanine green (ICG) in a DOX-sensitive cell line and two resistant cell lines that have different resistance mechanisms.
Methods: The DOX-sensitive MES-SA uterine sarcoma cell line was used as a negative control. The two resistant cell lines were uterine sarcoma MES-SA/Dx5, which overexpresses the multidrug resistance exporter P-glycoprotein, and ovarian carcinoma SKOV-3, which is less sensitive to doxorubicin due to a p53 gene mutation. The cellular uptake, subcellular localization and cytotoxicity of the two agents when delivered via nanoparticles (NPs) were compared to their free-form administration.
Results: The cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of DOX delivered by NPs were comparable to the free form in MES-SA and SKOV-3, but much higher in MES-SA/Dx5, indicating the capability of the NPs to overcome P-glycoprotein resistance mechanisms. NP-encapsulated ICG showed slightly different subcellular localization, but similar fluorescence intensity when compared to free ICG, and retained the ability to generate heat for hyperthermia delivery.
Conclusion: The dual-agent-loaded system allowed for the simultaneous delivery of hyperthermia and chemotherapy, and this combinational treatment greatly improved cytotoxicity in MES-SA/Dx5 cells and to a lesser extent in SKOV-3 cells.