Gram-negative bacterial endocarditis in adults: state-of-the-heart

Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2010 Aug;8(8):879-85. doi: 10.1586/eri.10.76.


Gram-negative endocarditis due to HACEK bacteria (Haemophilus species, Actinobacillus, Cardiobacterium, Eikenella and Kingella species) and non-HACEK organisms is an infrequent occurrence but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Traditionally, non-HACEK Gram-negative endocarditis has been associated with injection drug use. However, emerging data from more contemporary cohorts suggest changing epidemiology and risk factors for Gram-negative endocarditis, necessitating an updated review of this subject. Moreover, optimal management, including the need for surgical intervention, and strategies for the prevention of Gram-negative endocarditis need to be revisited.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial* / drug therapy
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial* / epidemiology
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial* / microbiology
  • Endocarditis, Bacterial* / surgery
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / classification*
  • Gram-Negative Bacteria / drug effects
  • Health Planning Guidelines
  • Humans
  • Risk Factors


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents