Diverse inhibitory pathways shape cortical information processing; however, the relevant interneurons recruited by sensory stimuli and how they impact principal cells are unclear. Here we show that two major interneuron circuits govern dynamic inhibition in space and time within the olfactory cortex. Dendritic-targeting layer 1 interneurons receive strong input from the olfactory bulb and govern early-onset feedforward inhibition. However, this circuit is only transiently engaged during bursts of olfactory bulb input. In contrast, somatic-targeting layer 3 interneurons, recruited exclusively by recurrent excitation from pyramidal cells, produce late-onset feedback inhibition. Our results reveal two complementary interneuron circuits enforcing widespread inhibition, which shifts from the apical dendrites to somata of pyramidal cells during bursts of sensory input.
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