Two genes encode distinct glutamate decarboxylases

Neuron. 1991 Jul;7(1):91-100. doi: 10.1016/0896-6273(91)90077-d.


gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most widely distributed known inhibitory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate brain. GABA also serves regulatory and trophic roles in several other organs, including the pancreas. The brain contains two forms of the GABA synthetic enzyme glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), which differ in molecular size, amino acid sequence, antigenicity, cellular and subcellular location, and interaction with the GAD cofactor pyridoxal phosphate. These forms, GAD65 and GAD67, derive from two genes. The distinctive properties of the two GADs provide a substrate for understanding not only the multiple roles of GABA in the nervous system, but also the autoimmune response to GAD in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Antigens / immunology
  • Bacteria / enzymology
  • Brain / enzymology
  • Genes*
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / genetics*
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / immunology
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase / metabolism
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate / pharmacology
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Subcellular Fractions / enzymology


  • Antigens
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate
  • Glutamate Decarboxylase

Associated data

  • GENBANK/M67516
  • GENBANK/M72422
  • GENBANK/S61932
  • GENBANK/S61935
  • GENBANK/S70258
  • GENBANK/S70261
  • GENBANK/S70262
  • GENBANK/X57453
  • GENBANK/X57454
  • GENBANK/X57455