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, 20 (5), 385-90

A 4-year Study of the Association Between Short Sleep Duration and Change in Body Mass Index in Japanese Male Workers


A 4-year Study of the Association Between Short Sleep Duration and Change in Body Mass Index in Japanese Male Workers

Chihiro Nishiura et al. J Epidemiol.


Background: Studies of Western populations have shown an inconsistent longitudinal association between short sleep duration and change in body mass index (BMI); a recent Japanese cohort study reported a significant association in men, but over a 1-year period. The aim of this longitudinal study was to examine whether this association was robust over a 4-year interval in Japanese men.

Methods: A total of 3803 middle-aged Japanese male white-collar workers (mean age 47.8 years, mean BMI 23.9 kg/m(2)) in Tokyo, Japan, were included in this study from 1994-1995 (baseline) to 1998-1999 (follow-up). Height and weight were objectively measured at annual health checkups, and other data, including sleep duration, were collected using a structured interview. We used linear regression models to estimate change in BMI, after adjustment for covariates. The reference category for sleep duration was set to 7 hours, to conform with previous studies.

Results: As compared with participants sleeping 7 hours, those sleeping 5 hours or less had a significantly higher BMI at baseline (beta coefficient: 0.34 kg/m(2), 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.03, 0.65) and gained 0.15 kg/m(2) in BMI over 4 years (95% CI: 0.03, 0.27), after adjustment for age, baseline BMI, lifestyle behavior, and medication.

Conclusions: The longitudinal association between short sleep duration at baseline and relative increase in BMI was significant in Japanese male workers over a 4-year interval.


Figure.. The longitudinal relationship between baseline sleep duration and mean change in BMI over a 4-year interval, by baseline BMI tertiles. The symbols show the mean changes in BMI and the error bars show the 95% confidence interval, after adjustment for age, baseline BMI, current medications, drinking, exercise, family history of disease, and smoking. The tertile values of baseline BMI were: <22.70 kg/m2 (T1; n = 1268), 22.70–24.84 kg/m2 (T2; n = 1270), and ≥24.85 kg/m2 (T3; n = 1265). Abbreviation: BMI, body mass index.

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