Background: The impact of antidiabetic medications on clinical outcomes in patients developing acute myocardial infarction (MI) is controversial. We sought to determine whether in-hospital outcomes in patients who were on sulfonylureas (SUs) when they developed their MIs differed from that of diabetic patients not receiving SUs and whether clinical outcomes were related to the pancreatic cells specificity of SUs.
Methods and results: We analyzed the outcomes of the 1310 diabetic patients included in the nationwide French Registry of Acute ST-Elevation and Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction in 2005. Medications used before the acute episode were recorded. In-hospital complications were analyzed according to prior antidiabetic treatment. Mortality was lower in patients previously treated with SUs (3.9%) vs. those on other oral medications (6.4%), insulin (9.4%), or no medication (8.4%) (P = 0.014). Among SU-treated patients, in-hospital mortality was lower in patients receiving pancreatic cells-specific SUs (gliclazide or glimepiride) (2.7%), compared with glibenclamide (7.5%) (P = 0.019). Arrhythmias and ischemic complications were also less frequent in patients receiving gliclazide/glimepiride. The lower risk in patients receiving gliclazide/glimepiride vs. glibenclamide persisted after multivariate adjustment (odds ratio 0.15; 95% confidence interval 0.04-0.56) and in propensity score-matched cohorts.
Conclusion: In this nationwide registry of patients hospitalized for acute MI, no hazard was associated with the use of SUs before the acute episode. In addition, patients previously receiving gliclazide/glimepiride had improved in-hospital outcomes, compared with those on glibenclamide.