Focal, periocular delivery of 2-deoxy-D-glucose as adjuvant to chemotherapy for treatment of advanced retinoblastoma

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010 Dec;51(12):6149-56. doi: 10.1167/iovs.09-5033. Epub 2010 Aug 11.


Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in tumor burden and hypoxia in the LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumors after treatment with a focal, single-modality, and combination therapy using periocular carboplatin and 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG).

Methods: Seventeen-week-old LH(BETA)T(AG) transgenic mice (n = 25) were treated with periocular injections of varying doses of 2-DG (62.5, 125, 250, 500 mg/kg) to obtain a dose response. Same-aged mice (n = 30) received periocular injections of saline, carboplatin, and 2-DG. Mice were divided into six groups: saline; carboplatin (31.25 μg/20 μL, subtherapeutic dose); 2-DG (250 mg/kg); 2-DG (500 mg/kg); carboplatin (31.25 μg/20 μL) and 2-DG (250 mg/kg); and carboplatin (31.25 μg/20 μL) and 2-DG (500 mg/kg). Injections were administered twice weekly for three consecutive weeks. Eyes were enucleated at 20 weeks of age, snap frozen, and analyzed for hypoxic regions and tumor volume.

Results: The difference in percentage of hypoxia after treatment with 500 mg/kg 2-DG was statistically significant from the other dose groups (P < 0.015). The difference in tumor burden was statistically significant from the 250 mg/kg dose (P < 0.015) and 500 mg/kg dose (P < 0.001). Highly significant differences were found between the treatment types for tumor burden, percentage of hypoxia, and pimonidazole intensity (P < 0.001). Tumor burden decreased significantly after all forms of treatment (P < 0.001); however, tumor burden became significantly more reduced after treatment with combination therapy of carboplatin and 2-DG than with either treatment alone (P < 0.001). The percentage of hypoxia and pimonidazole intensity decreased after treatment with 2-DG alone and in combination with carboplatin (P < 0.001) in all treatment groups using 2-DG regardless of the 2-DG dose used. There was no percentage reduction of hypoxia after treatment with carboplatin alone (P = 0.25).

Conclusions: This study demonstrates the efficacy of focal, periocular 2-DG as an adjunct to carboplatin chemotherapy to decrease both intratumoral hypoxia and tumor burden. Hypoxia is increasingly present in advanced disease of LH(BETA)T(AG) retinal tumors. The use of glycolytic inhibitors as a therapeutic strategy has the potential to enhance current retinoblastoma treatments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage*
  • Carboplatin / administration & dosage
  • Deoxyglucose / administration & dosage
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Drug Delivery Systems
  • Hypoxia / metabolism
  • Mice
  • Mice, Transgenic
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence
  • Nitroimidazoles / metabolism
  • Retinal Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Retinal Neoplasms / metabolism
  • Retinal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Retinoblastoma / drug therapy*
  • Retinoblastoma / pathology
  • Tumor Burden


  • Nitroimidazoles
  • pimonidazole
  • Deoxyglucose
  • Carboplatin