Par2 inactivation inhibits early production of TSLP, but not cutaneous inflammation, in Netherton syndrome adult mouse model

J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Dec;130(12):2736-42. doi: 10.1038/jid.2010.233. Epub 2010 Aug 12.


Netherton syndrome (NS) is a severe genodermatosis characterized by abnormal scaling and constant atopic manifestations. NS is caused by mutations in SPINK5 (Serine Protease INhibitor Kazal-type 5), which encodes LEKTI (LymphoEpithelial Kazal Type-related Inhibitor). Lack of LEKTI causes stratum corneum detachment secondary to epidermal proteases hyperactivity. Whereas a skin barrier defect is generally regarded as a major cause for atopy, we previously identified a cell-autonomous signaling cascade that triggers pro-Th2 cytokine thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) production in LEKTI-deficient epidermis. This signaling is initiated by unrestricted kallikrein 5 (KLK5) activity, which directly activates proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2)-mediated expression of TSLP and favors a cutaneous proallergic microenvironment independently of the environment and of the adaptive immune system. To further confirm these results in vivo, we generated Spink5/Par2 double knockout (DKO) mice. At embryonic day 19.5, these mice display a dramatic decrease in TSLP expression, although stratum corneum detachment persists, confirming the role of the KLK5-PAR2 cascade in TSLP-mediated early proallergic signaling. However, deletion of Par2 in adult DKO-grafted skin does not rescue the inflammatory phenotype probably resulting from stratum corneum detachment. We conclude that several mechanisms trigger and maintain the inflammatory phenotype in NS. These include skin barrier impairment, mechanical stress secondary to stratum corneum detachment, as well as protease-induced proinflammatory and proallergic pathways, including PAR2-mediated overexpression of TSLP.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Dermatitis* / immunology
  • Dermatitis* / metabolism
  • Dermatitis* / pathology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Epidermis / immunology
  • Epidermis / metabolism
  • Epidermis / pathology
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Mice, Nude
  • Netherton Syndrome* / immunology
  • Netherton Syndrome* / metabolism
  • Netherton Syndrome* / pathology
  • Pregnancy
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory / genetics*
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory / metabolism
  • Receptor, PAR-2 / genetics*
  • Receptor, PAR-2 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Cytokine / metabolism*
  • Serine Peptidase Inhibitor Kazal-Type 5
  • Signal Transduction / physiology


  • CRLF2 protein, human
  • Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory
  • Receptor, PAR-2
  • Receptors, Cytokine
  • SPINK5 protein, human
  • Serine Peptidase Inhibitor Kazal-Type 5