Haemodialysis improves uraemia-induced insulin sensitivity and is therefore likely to induce significant changes in circulating glucose concentrations in end-stage renal disease (ESRD). We aimed to assess clinically relevant circulating glucose changes in patients undergoing chronic maintenance haemodialysis using continuous interstitial monitoring. We investigated 14 non-diabetic ESRD subjects aged 40.6+/-2.4 years. Participants were examined 24-h day pre-dialysis, during the index dialysis session and 24-h post-dialysis with simultaneous measurement of capillary blood glucose and continuous interstitial glucose (CGMS). Participants performed five capillary blood glucose measurements the day before dialysis, and 10 during and after dialysis. Mean capillary blood glucose was 128+/-20mg/dl the day before, 93+/-8mg/dl during haemodialysis, and 105+/-13mg/dl after haemodialysis. There was a significant trend towards lower blood glucose during the session from 105+/-16mg/dl to a 3rd hour nadir of 83+/-15mg/dl (Anova F=2.89, p=0.029). No hypoglycaemia was recorded. Interstitial glucose profile was comparable to capillary glucose profile. Glucose concentrations varied significantly from 126+/-13mg/dl before to 112+/-12mg/dl after haemodialysis respectively (p=0.006). This study provides evidence for the use of CGMS in ESRD and haemodialysis, and demonstrates significant changes in glucose concentrations during and after haemodialysis that would guide treatment monitoring and adjustments.