To reduce the duration of neutropenia after conditioning chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (APBSCT), granulocyte-colony stimulating factors (G-CSF) are commonly administered. We retrospectively evaluated the impact of pegfilgrastim compared to filgrastim on neutrophil engraftment, hospital stay, and supportive measures in patients with multiple myeloma after conditioning with Melphalan 200 (Mel200) followed by APBSCT. Ninety-two APBSCT after Mel200 treatment were performed in 72 patients between January 2006 and December 2009 at our institution. Patients received either single-dose pegfilgrastim (n = 46; 50%), or daily filgrastim (n = 46; 50%) after APBSCT (median duration of filgrastim use, 9 days; range, 3-14 days). Duration of neutropenia grade IV was shorter with pegfilgrastim compared with filgrastim (median, 5 days (range, 3-14 days) versus 6 days (range, 3-9 days), p = 0.0079). The length of hospitalization differed significantly (pegfilgrastim (median, 14.5 days; range, 11-47 days) versus filgrastim (median, 15.5 days; range, 12-64 days), p = 0.024). Pegfilgrastim-treated patients had less red blood cell transfusions (median, 0 transfusions (range, 0-10) versus 0.5 transfusions (range, 0-9), p = 0.00065). Pegfilgrastim was associated with reduced cost of the treatment procedure compared with filgrastim (p = 0.031). Pegfilgrastim appears to be at least equivalent to filgrastim without additional expenditure in myeloma patients treated with Mel200 and APBSCT.