CgA is a 49 kilodalton protein that is present in the secretory granules of most endocrine and many neuroendocrine cells. Detection of CgA in cells by immunocytochemistry and measurement of CgA in serum by immunoassay can serve as tissue and serum markers for CgA-producing tumors. CgA is of diagnostic value in classical endocrine tumors, in hormone-negative tumors, and in endocrine tumors in which other diagnostic procedures have their limitations. Although the biological function of CgA is yet unknown, it may serve as a precursor molecule, like POMC, for a family of biologically active peptides. CgA is an important new tool for the endocrinologist in the diagnosis and management of patients with endocrine and neuroendocrine tumors.