Purpose: We sought to examine the clinical features of severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) using fluorescein angiography (FA).
Design: Retrospective case series of eyes with severe acute-phase ROP that underwent FA at the time of laser photocoagulation.
Participants: We included 22 eyes of 11 infants that developed ROP stage 3 in zone 1 with plus disease, 8 eyes of 4 infants classified as ROP stage 3 in zone 1 without plus disease, and 21 eyes of 11 infants that developed ROP stage 3 in zone 2 with plus disease. All eyes underwent laser photocoagulation. A total of 51 sets of digital images including FA were obtained immediately before treatment.
Methods: RetCam (Clarity, Pleasanton, CA) fundus images and video digital FAs were performed under general anesthesia right before laser treatment. A 10% solution of fluorescein was intravenously administered as a bolus at a dose of 0.1 ml/kg, followed by an isotonic saline flush.
Main outcomes measures: Fluorescein angiograms were examined retrospectively to catalog different retinal and choroidal findings
Results: In eyes with severe ROP, FA clearly shows extreme variability in both retinal circulation and choroidal filling pattern. Different patterns of vessels branching at the junction between vascular and avascular retina (V-Av junction) are noted. Posterior to the V-Av junction, hypoperfused retinal areas with or without hyperfluorescent "cotton-wool-like" or "popcorn-like" lesions due to dye leakage are documented by FA. Focal dilatation of capillaries, capillary tufts formations, and rosary-bead-like hyperfluorescent lesions inside the vessels were seen; sometimes all 3 are noted. Various macular abnormalities are noted including absence of foveal avascular area and significant exudative component.
Conclusions: Fluorescein angiography was useful to distinguish the deceptively featureless zone 1 junction between the vascularized and nonvascularized retina. Further studies are needed to understand the role of vascular abnormalities observed in zone 1 vascularized retina.
Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.