Protection of plants from ambient ozone by applications of ethylenediurea (EDU): a meta-analytic review

Environ Pollut. 2010 Oct;158(10):3236-42. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2010.07.009. Epub 2010 Aug 14.


A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively assess the effects of ethylenediurea (EDU) on ozone (O3) injury, growth, physiology and productivity of plants grown in ambient air conditions. Results indicated that EDU significantly reduced O3-caused visible injury by 76%, and increased photosynthetic rate by 8%, above-ground biomass by 7% and crop yield by 15% in comparison with non-EDU treated plants, suggesting that ozone reduces growth and yield under current ambient conditions. EDU significantly ameliorated the biomass and yield of crops and grasses, but had no significant effect on tree growth with an exception of stem diameter. EDU applied as a soil drench at a concentration of 200-400 mg/L has the highest positive effect on crops grown in the field. Long-term research on full-grown tree species is needed. In conclusion, EDU is a powerful tool for assessing effects of ambient [O3] on vegetation.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects
  • Ozone / toxicity*
  • Phenylurea Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Photosynthesis / drug effects
  • Plant Development
  • Plants / drug effects*
  • Plants / metabolism
  • Protective Agents / pharmacology*


  • Air Pollutants
  • Phenylurea Compounds
  • Protective Agents
  • ethylene diurea
  • Ozone