Background: Nephrolithiasis has been associated with hypertension, obesity and diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of adverse cardiovascular outcomes among kidney stone formers (KSF) is unknown.
Methods: We examined the IV Portuguese National Health Survey for documenting possible associations between nephrolithiasis, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and obesity in the Portuguese adult population.
Results: We obtained 23 349 questionnaires from individuals ≥ 15 years old. The prevalence of kidney stone disease (KSD) was 7.3%. The prevalence of hypertension was higher among KSF when compared with the general population (50.4 vs 30.2%; P < 0.001). Age and obesity significantly increase the risk for nephrolithiasis. After adjusting for age and body mass index, KSF have higher prevalence of hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.841; 95% CI, 1.651-2.053], diabetes mellitus (OR, 1.475; 95% CI, 1.283-1.696; P < 0.001), myocardial infarction (OR, 1.338; 95% CI, 1.003-1.786; P < 0.05) and stroke (OR, 1.330; 95% CI, 1.015-1.743; P < 0.05) compared with non-stone formers.
Conclusions: KSD is associated with a higher prevalence of chronic diseases and adverse cardiovascular outcomes when compared with the general population.