Perchlorate and iodide in whole blood samples from infants, children, and adults in Nanchang, China

Environ Sci Technol. 2010 Sep 15;44(18):6947-53. doi: 10.1021/es101354g.


Perchlorate, ClO(4)(-), interferes with iodide (I(-)) uptake by the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) and thereby affects thyroid hormone production in the body. Studies have reported human exposures to perchlorate based on measurements in urine, but little is known about the levels in blood. In this study, we determined concentrations of perchlorate, iodide, and other anions (e.g., chlorate [ClO(3)(-)], bromate [BrO(3)(-)], bromide [Br(-)]) in 131 whole blood samples collected from Chinese donors aged 0.4 to 90 yr, in Nanchang, China. Perchlorate, iodide, and bromide were detected in all of the samples analyzed, whereas chlorate was found in only 27% of the samples and bromate was found in only 2%. The mean (range) concentrations of perchlorate, iodide, and bromide were 2.68 (0.51-10.5), 42.6 (1.58-812), and 2120 (1050-4850) ng/mL, respectively. Perchlorate levels in blood from Nanchang adults were 10-fold greater than levels that have been previously reported for U.S. adults. The iodide/perchlorate molar ratio ranged from 3.05 to 15.3 for all age groups, and the ratio increased with age (r = 0.732, p < 0.01). Perchlorate and bromide concentrations decreased significantly with age, whereas iodide concentrations increased with age. No significant gender-related differences in blood perchlorate, iodide, or bromide levels were found. A significant negative correlation was found between the concentrations of perchlorate and iodide in blood. Exposure doses of perchlorate were estimated for infants, toddlers, children, adolescents, and adults based on the measured concentrations in blood, using a simple pharmacokinetic model. The mean exposure doses of perchlorate for our age groups ranged from 1.12 (adults) to 2.22 μg/kg bw/day (infants), values higher than the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) reference dose (RfD: 0.7 μg/kg bw/day). This is the first study on perchlorate and iodide levels in whole blood from infants, toddlers, children, adolescents, and adults from a city in China with known high perchlorate levels.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Bromides / blood
  • Child
  • China
  • Environmental Monitoring*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Iodides / blood*
  • Limit of Detection
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Perchlorates / blood*
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Young Adult


  • Bromides
  • Iodides
  • Perchlorates
  • perchlorate