Background & objectives: Depression is common among people with diabetes and it is associated with poor outcomes. This study was carried out to investigate the prevalence and determinants of depression in patients with established type 2 diabetes (T2DM) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India.
Methods: Patients with established T2DM were evaluated for depression by administering the nine-item PHQ-9 (Hindi version). Binary logistic regression model was used to examine association between predictor variables and risk of depression. Results were expressed as odds ratio and 95 per cent confidence interval. Cronbach alpha was calculated to assess internal consistency of PHQ-9.
Results: Patients with T2DM (n=300) were evaluated [147(49%) male and 153(51%) female]. The median duration of diabetes (IQ) was 8(4-13) yrs. Of the study patients, 68 (23%) met the criteria for major depression, 54 (18%) for moderate depression and the remaining 178 (59%) had no clinically significant depression. Depression was strongly associated with age >54 yr (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.02-1.67; P<0.05), central obesity (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.04-1.64; P<0.001), neuropathy (OR 1.94, 95% CI 1.03-3.66; P=0.002), nephropathy (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.02-3.21; P=0.041), peripheral vascular disease (OR 6.08, 95% CI 1.07-34.6; P=0.042), diabetic foot disease (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.06-5.86; P<0.001) and pill burden (>4) (OR 1.27, 95%CI 1.01-1.44; P=0.035 ). However, the likelihood of depression was not significant with duration of diabetes and insulin use.
Interpretation & conclusion: This study showed high prevalence of depression in patients with T2DM. The risk factors for depression were age, central obesity, diabetic complications particularly neuropathy and diabetic foot disease and increased pill burden.