6-Shogaol, an active constituent of ginger, inhibits breast cancer cell invasion by reducing matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via blockade of nuclear factor-κB activation

Br J Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;161(8):1763-77. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00991.x.

Abstract

Background and purpose: Shogaols are reported to possess anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. However, the antimetastatic potential of shogaols remains unexplored. This study was performed to assess the effects of shogaols against breast cancer cell invasion and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.

Experimental approach: The anti-invasive effect of a series of shogaols was initially evaluated on MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells using the matrigel invasion assay. The suppressive effects of 6-shogaol on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) gelatinolytic activity and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation were further determined.

Key results: Shogaols (6-, 8- and 10-shogaol) inhibited PMA-stimulated MDA-MB-231 cell invasion with an accompanying decrease in MMP-9 secretion. 6-Shogaol was identified to display the greatest anti-invasive effect in association with a dose-dependent reduction in MMP-9 gene activation, protein expression and secretion. The NF-κB transcriptional activity was decreased by 6-shogaol; an effect mediated by inhibition of IκB phosphorylation and degradation that subsequently led to suppression of NF-κB p65 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In addition, 6-shogaol was found to inhibit JNK activation with no resulting reduction in activator protein-1 transcriptional activity. By using specific inhibitors, it was demonstrated that ERK and NF-κB signalling, but not JNK and p38 signalling, were involved in PMA-stimulated MMP-9 activation.

Conclusions and implications: 6-Shogaol is a potent inhibitor of MDA-MB-231 cell invasion, and the molecular mechanism involves at least in part the down-regulation of MMP-9 transcription by targeting the NF-κB activation cascade. This class of naturally occurring small molecules thus have potential for clinical use as antimetastatic treatments.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology*
  • Breast Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Catechols / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor
  • Female
  • Ginger*
  • Humans
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / biosynthesis
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / drug effects
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / pharmacology
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / antagonists & inhibitors
  • NF-kappa B / biosynthesis*
  • Neoplasm Invasiveness / prevention & control*
  • Signal Transduction / drug effects
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / analogs & derivatives
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate / pharmacology
  • Transcription Factor AP-1 / metabolism

Substances

  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Catechols
  • NF-kappa B
  • Transcription Factor AP-1
  • 4-O-methyl-12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate
  • shogaol
  • JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases, Secreted
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
  • Tetradecanoylphorbol Acetate