The effective implementation of personalized cancer therapeutic regimens depends on the successful identification and translation of informative biomarkers to aid clinical decision making. Antibody-based proteomics occupies a pivotal space in the cancer biomarker discovery and validation pipeline, facilitating the high-throughput evaluation of candidate markers. Although the clinical utility of these emerging technologies remains to be established, the traditional use of antibodies as affinity reagents in clinical diagnostic and predictive assays suggests that the rapid translation of such approaches is an achievable goal. Furthermore, in combination with, or as alternatives to, genomic and transcriptomic methods for patient stratification, antibody-based proteomics approaches offer the promise of additional insight into cancer disease states. In this Review, we discuss the current status of antibody-based proteomics and its contribution to the development of new assays that are crucial for the realization of individualized cancer therapy.