The plant-based compounds rho-iso-alpha acids (RIAA) from Humulus lupulus (hops) and proanthocyanidins (PAC) from Acacia nilotica have been shown to modulate insulin signaling in vitro. We investigated their effects on triglyceride (TG) deposition in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, glucose and insulin in obese mouse models, and metabolic syndrome markers in adults with metabolic syndrome. The combination of RIAA and PAC synergistically increased TG content and adiponectin secretion in 3T3-L1 adipocytes under hyperinsulinemic conditions and reduced glucose or insulin in obese mice. In a clinical trial, tablets containing 100 mg RIAA and 500 mg PAC or placebo were administered to metabolic syndrome subjects (3 tablets/day, n = 35; 6 tablets/day, n = 34; or placebo, n = 35) for 12 weeks. Compared to placebo, subjects taking 3 tablets daily showed greater reductions in TG, TG : HDL, fasting insulin, and HOMA scores. The combination of RIAA : PAC at 1 : 5 (wt : wt) favorably modulates dysregulated lipids in insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome.