Patients with serious infections requiring parenteral antimicrobial therapy are usually hospitalized for treatment. For certain conditions, however, administration of parenteral antibiotics outside the hospital setting may be safe, efficacious, convenient for patients and cost-beneficial. Outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) was developed in the US initially and its use has expanded globally during the past three decades. A wide variety of infections are amenable to treatment by OPAT. Once-daily agents such as ceftriaxone or teicoplanin and, more recently, antimicrobials such as ertapenem or daptomycin have been used for OPAT. The use of higher doses and less-frequent dosing of existing agents is being explored, and exciting new developments include the emergence of agents with broader-spectrum activity against drug-resistant organisms and the use of antifungal agents in the OPAT setting. Future prospects in OPAT include the use of more recently launched drugs such as telavancin, as well as drugs in development, including dalbavancin (Durata Therapeutics Inc) and omadacycline (PTK-0796; Novartis AG/PARATEK Pharmaceuticals Inc). This review outlines recent developments in, and future prospects for, the antimicrobial agents used in OPAT.