The current standard of care for patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) employs a system of intensive diabetes management aimed at near-normal glycemia, which reduces the risk of micro- and macrovascular complications. Optimal management is an ongoing process based on a patient-centered collaboration with a primary care clinician and a multidisciplinary diabetes team that provides diabetes management, including education and psychosocial support. Intensive diabetes therapy attempts to mimic physiologic insulin replacement. Over the past 15 years, there has been widespread use of multiple-dose insulin regimens using a variety of insulin analogs, administered either by injection or insulin pump therapy, together with medical nutrition therapy, frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose and, more recently, continuous logo glucose monitoring. It is now possible to achieve previously unattainable levels of glycemic control with less risk of severe hypoglycemia, and yet only a minority of patients achieves target hemoglobin A1c values. This review discusses contemporary management of T1D with a focus on health outcomes.
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