The abundance and activation of mTORC1 regulators in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs are modulated by insulin, amino acids, and age

J Appl Physiol (1985). 2010 Nov;109(5):1448-54. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00428.2010. Epub 2010 Aug 19.


Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling is crucial for the regulation of protein synthesis. Most of known mTORC1 regulators have been isolated and characterized using cell culture systems, and the physiological roles of these regulators have not been fully tested in vivo. Previously we demonstrated that the insulin (INS) and amino acid (AA)-induced activation of mTORC1 is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle (Suryawan A et al. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 293: E1597-E1605, 2007). The present study aimed to characterize in more detail the effects of the postprandial rise in INS and AA on the activation and abundance of mTORC1 regulators in muscle and how this is modified by development. Overnight fasted 6- and 26-day-old pigs were studied during 1) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic conditions (control), 2) euinsulinemic-euglycemic-hyperaminoacidemic clamps (AA), and 3) hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic-euaminoacidemic clamps (INS). INS, but not AA, enhanced the PRAS40 phosphorylation, and this effect was greater in 6- than in 26-day old pigs. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) abundance and phosphorylation, and the association of PLD1 with Ras homolog enriched in brain (Rheb), were greater in the younger pigs. Neither INS, AA, nor age altered the abundance of Rheb, vacuolar protein sorting 34 (Vps34), or FK506-binding protein 38 (FKBP38). Although INS and AA had no effect, the abundance of ras-related GTP binding B (RagB) and the association of RagB with Raptor were greater in 6- than in 26-day-old pigs. Neither INS, AA, nor age altered AMPK-induced phosphorylation of Raptor. Our results suggest that the enhanced activation of mTORC1 in muscle of neonatal pigs is in part due to regulation by PRAS40, PLD1, and the Rag GTPases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / metabolism*
  • Age Factors
  • Amino Acids / administration & dosage
  • Amino Acids / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Animals, Newborn
  • Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits / metabolism*
  • Glucose Clamp Technique
  • Insulin / administration & dosage
  • Insulin / metabolism*
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Muscle, Skeletal / metabolism*
  • Phospholipase D / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Postprandial Period
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Swine
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases / metabolism*
  • Tacrolimus Binding Proteins / metabolism


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Amino Acids
  • GTP-Binding Protein beta Subunits
  • Insulin
  • Multiprotein Complexes
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Class III Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • AMP-Activated Protein Kinases
  • Phospholipase D
  • phospholipase D1
  • Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
  • Tacrolimus Binding Proteins