Application of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) has allowed an unprecedented high-resolution analysis of cancer genomes. We developed a custom genome-wide oligonucleotide microarray interrogating 493 genes involved in hematological disorders. We analyzed 55 patients with hematological neoplasms by using this microarray. In 33 patients with apparent normal conventional cytogenetic analysis, aneuploidy or isochromosomes were detected in 12% (4 of 33) of the patients by aCGH. The chromosomal changes included trisomy of chromosomes 10, 14, and 15, tetrasomy 11, and isochromosome 17q. In 17 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia who were initially investigated by using a panel of standard fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, additional copy number changes that were not interrogated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) panel were detected in 47% (8 of 17) of the patients by aCGH. Important copy number changes included gain on 2p16 involving REL and BCL11A genes, rearrangements of chromosomes 8 and 15, and trisomy of chromosomes 19 and 22. In five patients with known abnormal karyotypes, aCGH identified the origin of two marker chromosomes and detected microdeletions at five breakpoints involved in three apparent balanced translocations. Our results suggest that a subset of potentially significant genomic alterations is missed by the currently available cytogenetic techniques. This pilot study clearly demonstrates high sensitivity of oligonucleotide aCGH for potential use in diagnosis and follow-up in patients with hematological neoplasms.