Suppression subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were prepared from asexual synnemata (S-lib) and sexual perithecia (P-lib) fruiting bodies of the Dutch elm disease pathogen Ophiostoma novo-ulmi subsp. novo-ulmi isolate H327 (mating-type MAT1-1) consisting of 630 and 401 cDNA clones, respectively. Both libraries were differentially screened in duplicate with forward and reverse subtracted probes. Up-regulated S-lib transcripts included those with homologies to phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and aquaporin. Up-regulated P-lib transcripts included those with homologies to aspartyl proteinase, DNA lyase 2, and part of a mating-type (MAT) protein containing a DNA-binding domain of the high-mobility group (HMG) type. Phylogenetic analyses of HMG domains present within the putative O. novo-ulmi MAT protein and within MAT1-1-3 and MAT1-2-1 proteins of other ascomycete fungi identified the O. novo-ulmi protein as a homologue of the MAT1-1-3 protein, which represents part of the so far uncharacterized O. novo-ulmi MAT1-1 idiomorph. Reverse transcription - quantitative real-time PCR indicated up-regulation of the MAT1-1-3 homologue in O. novo-ulmi perithecia and synnemata. The present work identifies, for the first time, proteins involved in the formation of asexual and sexual fruiting bodies in O. novo-ulmi and should be of interest to researchers concerned with reproduction, mating type, and sexuality of filamentous ascomycete fungi.