Biomaterial topography alters healing in vivo and monocyte/macrophage activation in vitro

J Biomed Mater Res A. 2010 Nov;95(2):649-57. doi: 10.1002/jbm.a.32893.


The effect of biomaterial topography on healing in vivo and monocyte/macrophage stimulation in vitro was assessed. A series of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) materials were characterized by increasing average intranodal distance of 1.2 μm (1.2-ePTFE), 3.0 μm (3.0-ePTFE), and 4.4 μm (4.4-ePTFE), but presented consistent surface chemistry with nonporous PTFE (np-PTFE). Subcutaneous implantation of 4.4-ePTFE into mice resulted in a statistically thinner capsule that appeared less organized and less dense than the np-PTFE response. In vitro, isolated monocytes/macrophages cultured on np-PTFE produced low levels of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), 1.2-ePTFE and 3.0-ePTFE stimulated intermediate levels, and 4.4-ePTFE stimulated a 15-fold increase over np-PTFE. Analysis of cDNA microarrays demonstrated that additional proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, including IL-1β, interleukin 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, and macrophage inflammatory protein 1-beta, were expressed at higher levels by monocytes/macrophages cultured on 4.4-ePTFE at 4 and 24 h, respectively. Expression ratios for several genes were quantified by RT-PCR and were consistent with those from the cDNA array results. These results demonstrate the effect of biomaterial topography on early proinflammatory cytokine production and gene transcription by monocytes/macrophages in vitro and decreased fibrous capsule thickness in vivo.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biocompatible Materials / metabolism
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokines / genetics
  • Chemokines / metabolism
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism
  • Macrophage Activation*
  • Macrophages / cytology
  • Macrophages / physiology*
  • Male
  • Materials Testing
  • Mice
  • Monocytes / cytology
  • Monocytes / physiology*
  • Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene / chemistry
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene / metabolism
  • Surface Properties


  • Biocompatible Materials
  • Chemokines
  • Cytokines
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • Polytetrafluoroethylene