Phylogeography of the Y-chromosome haplogroup C in northern Eurasia

Ann Hum Genet. 2010 Nov;74(6):539-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00601.x. Epub 2010 Aug 20.


To reconstruct the phylogenetic structure of Y-chromosome haplogroup (hg) C in populations of northern Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci in a total sample of 413 males from 18 ethnic groups of Siberia, Eastern Asia and Eastern Europe. Analysis of SNP markers revealed that all Y-chromosomes studied belong to hg C3 and its subhaplogroups C3c and C3d, although some populations (such as Mongols and Koryaks) demonstrate a relatively high input (more than 30%) of yet unidentified C3* haplotypes. Median joining network analysis of STR haplotypes demonstrates that Y-chromosome gene pools of populations studied are characterized by the presence of DNA clusters originating from a limited number of frequent founder haplotypes. These are subhaplogroup C3d characteristic for Mongolic-speaking populations, "star cluster" in C3* paragroup, and a set of DYS19 duplicated C3c Y-chromosomes. All these DNA clusters show relatively recent coalescent times (less than 3000 years), so it is probable that founder effects, including social selection resulting in high male fertility associated with a limited number of paternal lineages, may explain the observed distribution of hg C3 lineages.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromosomes, Human, Y / genetics*
  • Ethnic Groups / genetics
  • Europe, Eastern
  • Far East
  • Genetic Variation
  • Haplotypes*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Microsatellite Repeats
  • Phylogeography*
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Siberia