Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of MDCT angiography to modify early results in patients undergoing endovascular embolization for hemoptysis.
Materials and methods: A comparative study was performed of two consecutive cohorts with 200 patients each who were treated by endovascular embolization for severe hemoptysis; one cohort underwent MDCT angiography and the other did not, but patients underwent further exploration with global aortography. We compared the two groups for patients' age and sex and for the volume, cause, and mechanisms of hemoptysis. Evaluation included the number of sessions needed to control the hemoptysis, the primary failure of bronchial artery embolization, the recurrence of hemoptysis, pulmonary artery vasoocclusion, urgent surgical resection, and death by massive hemoptysis during hospitalization. Failure was defined as the absence of embolization during the first session. Recurrence was defined as rebleeding despite technically successful bronchial artery embolization.
Results: Differences between the groups were statistically significant for patient age (p < 0.05), endovascular treatment failure among patients older than 70 years (p < 0.05), pulmonary artery vasoocclusion in comparison with diagnostic pulmonary artery angiography (p < 0.0001), and urgent surgical resection (p = 0.034).
Conclusion: The impact of MDCT angiography was significant in reducing the rate of vascular catheterization failure in patients older than 70 years, increasing the number of pulmonary artery vasoocclusions, and reducing the number of urgent surgical resection.