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Multicenter Study
. 2011 May;22(5):1389-99.
doi: 10.1007/s00198-010-1362-7. Epub 2010 Aug 21.

25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Canadian Adults: Biological, Environmental, and Behavioral Correlates

Collaborators, Affiliations
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Multicenter Study

25-Hydroxyvitamin D in Canadian Adults: Biological, Environmental, and Behavioral Correlates

L S Greene-Finestone et al. Osteoporos Int. .
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Abstract

Summary: We assessed vitamin D status and its correlates in the population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Results showed that serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels <75 nmol/L were common. Given Canada's high latitude, attention should be given to strategies for enhancing vitamin D status in the population.

Introduction: Inadequate vitamin D has been implicated as a risk factor for several clinical disorders. We assessed, in a Canadian cohort, vitamin D status and its correlates, based on serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the best functional indicator of vitamin D status.

Methods: We studied 577 men and 1,335 women 35+ years from seven cities across Canada in the randomly selected, population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos). Participants completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Serum 25(OH)D was measured by immunoassay. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the association between 25(OH)D and determinants of vitamin D status.

Results: Participants (2.3%) were deficient in 25(OH)D (<27.5 nmol/L); a further 18.1% exhibited 25(OH)D insufficiency (27.5-50 nmol/L). Levels <75 nmol/L were evident in 57.5% of men and 60.7% of women and rose to 73.5% in spring (men) and 77.5% in winter (women); 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L was ≤10% year round for those supplementing with ≥400 IU vitamin D/day but was 43.9% among those not supplementing in winter and spring. The strongest predictors of reduced 25(OH)D for both men and women were winter and spring season, BMI ≥30, non-white ethnicity, and lower vitamin D supplementation and its modification by fall and winter.

Conclusions: In this national Canadian cohort, vitamin D levels <75 nmol/L were common, particularly among non-white and obese individuals, and in winter and spring. Vitamin D intake through diet and supplementation and maintenance of normal weight are key modifiable factors for enhancing vitamin D status and thus potentially influencing susceptibility to common chronic diseases.

Conflict of interest statement

D. Goltzman has received honoraria from and served on the advisory boards of Amgen, Eli Lilly, Proctor & Gamble, Merck Frosst, Novartis and Servier. D.A. Hanley has received honoraria from Amgen, Proctor & Gamble, sanofi-aventis, Merck Frosst, and Servier. L Greene-Finestone, C Berger, M de Groh, N Hidiroglou, K Sarafin, S Poliquin, J Krieger, and JB Richards have no conflicts of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
a 25(OH)D by month of draw in males. b 25(OH)D by month of draw in females

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