Recent civilian data obtained in those sustaining head injuries, has found a high prevalence of pituitary dysfunction. Currently, there is no data available in the military population. We reviewed the literature for traumatic brain injury (TBI)-related hypopituitarism and found that the prevalence of anterior hypopituitarism may be as high as 30-80% after 24-36 months. Since many of the symptoms of hypopituitarism are similar to those of TBI, it is important to make clinicians caring for combat veterans aware of its occurrence. Herein, we provide an overview of the literature and recommendations for hormonal testing when TBI-related hypopituitarism is suspected.