Improved synthesis of graphene oxide

ACS Nano. 2010 Aug 24;4(8):4806-14. doi: 10.1021/nn1006368.


An improved method for the preparation of graphene oxide (GO) is described. Currently, Hummers' method (KMnO(4), NaNO(3), H(2)SO(4)) is the most common method used for preparing graphene oxide. We have found that excluding the NaNO(3), increasing the amount of KMnO(4), and performing the reaction in a 9:1 mixture of H(2)SO(4)/H(3)PO(4) improves the efficiency of the oxidation process. This improved method provides a greater amount of hydrophilic oxidized graphene material as compared to Hummers' method or Hummers' method with additional KMnO(4). Moreover, even though the GO produced by our method is more oxidized than that prepared by Hummers' method, when both are reduced in the same chamber with hydrazine, chemically converted graphene (CCG) produced from this new method is equivalent in its electrical conductivity. In contrast to Hummers' method, the new method does not generate toxic gas and the temperature is easily controlled. This improved synthesis of GO may be important for large-scale production of GO as well as the construction of devices composed of the subsequent CCG.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.