Objective: To identify and compare clinical and neuroimaging predictors of primary lobar intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) recurrence, assessing their relative contributions to recurrent ICH.
Methods: Subjects were consecutive survivors of primary ICH drawn from a single-center prospective cohort study. Baseline clinical, imaging, and laboratory data were collected. Survivors were followed prospectively for recurrent ICH and intercurrent aspirin and warfarin use, including duration of exposure. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify predictors of recurrence stratified by ICH location, with aspirin and warfarin exposures as time-dependent variables adjusting for potential confounders.
Results: A total of 104 primary lobar ICH survivors were enrolled. Recurrence of lobar ICH was associated with previous ICH before index event (hazard ratio [HR] 7.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4-15.7), number of lobar microbleeds (HR 2.93 with 2-4 microbleeds present, 95% CI 1.3-4.0; HR = 4.12 when >or=5 microbleeds present, 95% CI 1.6-9.3), and presence of CT-defined white matter hypodensity in the posterior region (HR 4.11, 95% CI 1.01-12.2). Although aspirin after ICH was not associated with lobar ICH recurrence in univariate analyses, in multivariate analyses adjusting for baseline clinical predictors, it independently increased the risk of ICH recurrence (HR 3.95, 95% CI 1.6-8.3, p = 0.021).
Conclusions: Recurrence of lobar ICH is associated with previous microbleeds or macrobleeds and posterior CT white matter hypodensity, which may be markers of severity for underlying cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Use of an antiplatelet agent following lobar ICH may also increase recurrence risk.