Given that KRAS mutant colorectal tumors do not respond to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies such as cetuximab or panitumumab, it is now standard that all patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who are candidates for these therapies undergo KRAS testing. BRAF encodes a protein kinase, which is involved in intracellular signaling and cell growth and is a principal downstream effector of KRAS. BRAF is now increasingly being investigated in metastatic colorectal carcinoma. BRAF mutations occur in less than 10-15% of tumors and appear to be poor prognostic markers. However the predictive nature of this biomarker is yet undefined. This article will review the evidence behind both KRAS and BRAF testing in metastatic colorectal cancer.