S-100B in serum and urine after traumatic head injury in children

J Trauma. 2010 Aug;69(2):284-9. doi: 10.1097/ta.0b013e3181ca060b.


Background: Children with head trauma are frequently seen in many emergency units. The clinical evaluation of these patients is difficult for a number of reasons and improved diagnostic tools are needed. S-100B, a protein found in glial cells, has previously been shown to be a sensible marker for brain damage after head injury in adults, but few studies have focused on its use in children.

Methods: In this study, 111 children with head trauma were included and venous blood and urine samples were taken at arrival (S1 and U1) and 6 hours later (S2 and U2). S-100B levels were analyzed. Clinical and radiologic evaluations were performed according to hospital routine. Two groups were identified- group 1: no computed tomography (CT) scan performed ora CT scan without any sign of trauma-related intracranial pathology (n = 105). Group 2: A CT scan with signs of trauma-related intracranial pathology (n = 6).

Results: In group 1, the median (inter quartile range) serum S-100B value in S1-samples was 0.111 microg/L (0.086-0.153), and in group 2, it was 0.282 microg/L (0.195-1.44) (p < 0.01). Also, S2 values significantly differed between the two groups. Urine values were, however, not significantly differing between the groups.

Conclusions: Serum S-100B values within 6 hours after head trauma in children were significantly higher in patients with intracranial pathology compared with those without intracranial complications. Identification of these high-risk patients already in the emergency department is of major importance, and we suggest that S-100B could be a valuable diagnostic tool in addition to those used in clinical practice today.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Biomarkers / urine
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Cohort Studies
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / blood*
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / diagnosis*
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / diagnostic imaging
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / mortality
  • Craniocerebral Trauma / urine
  • Emergency Service, Hospital
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Injury Severity Score
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis
  • ROC Curve
  • Risk Assessment
  • S100 Proteins / blood*
  • S100 Proteins / urine*
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Survival Analysis
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods


  • Biomarkers
  • S100 Proteins