Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists used to treat type 2 diabetes. TZD treatment induces side effects such as peripheral fluid retention, often leading to discontinuation of therapy. Previous studies have shown that PPARγ activation by TZD enhances the expression or function of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) through different mechanisms. However, the effect of TZDs on ENaC activity is not clearly understood. Here, we show that treating Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing ENaC and PPARγ with the TZD rosiglitazone (RGZ) produced a twofold increase of amiloride-sensitive sodium current (Iam), as measured by two-electrode voltage clamp. RGZ-induced ENaC activation was PPARγ-dependent since the PPARγ antagonist GW9662 blocked the activation. The RGZ-induced Iam increase was not mediated through direct serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK1)-dependent phosphorylation of serine residue 594 on the human ENaC α-subunit but by the diminution of ENaC ubiquitination through the SGK1/Nedd4-2 pathway. In accordance, RGZ increased the activity of ENaC by enhancing its cell surface expression, most probably indirectly mediated through the increase of SGK1 expression.