In 1986, the Drake Health Registry Study initiated bladder cancer screening for 366 persons at high risk because of occupational exposure to beta-naphthylamine. The Drake Health Registry Study screening protocol consists of urinalysis, Papanicolaou cytology, and quantitative fluorescence image analysis. A positive screening test qualifies participants for a full diagnostic evaluation. The screening protocol has been modified during the first 3 years of the program's existence to address unexpected patterns of test results and to incorporate advances in screening technology. The current protocol, which has a two-tiered screening schedule, has been utilized successfully for 15 months. Of the 26 positive results to date most have been based on abnormal Papanicolaou cytology and/or quantitative fluorescence image analysis. Bladder abnormalities were cited among most of the 18 study members who underwent diagnostic evaluation, including chronic cystitis, inflammation, hyperplasia, and dysplasia. We conclude that the screening program is detecting very early changes in a relatively young cohort and that these persons must be monitored over a number of years to ensure adequate medical surveillance.