Griseofulvin administration was associated with the development of absolute neutropenia in six of seven (86%) cats with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection. The neutropenia was severe (less than 400 neutrophils/microliter) in four of the six affected cats, and one cat died from sepsis. Neutrophil counts returned to baseline values within 15 days after drug withdrawal in all surviving cats. No symptoms or hematologic abnormalities were observed in four normal (FIV-seronegative) cats treated with the same lot of griseofulvin at equivalent doses. Neutropenia recurred in two of two FIV-seropositive cats upon griseofulvin rechallenge. Cats with FIV infections appear to be at increased risk for griseofulvin-associated neutropenia. This phenomenon may be analogous to the increased frequency of antibiotic-induced neutropenias observed in humans infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.