There is increasing evidence that a behavioral treatment approach might be efficacious in the treatment of the emotional aspects of infertility and may lead to increased conception rates. The first 54 women to complete a behavioral treatment program based on the elicitation of the relaxation response showed statistically significant decreases in anxiety, depression, and fatigue as well as increases in vigor. In addition, 34% of these women became pregnant within 6 months of completing the program. These findings established a role for stress reduction in the long-term treatment of infertility. They further suggest that behavioral treatment should be considered for couples with infertility before or in conjunction with reproductive technologies such as intrauterine insemination and gamete intrafallopian transfer.