The preconception period is an ideal opportunity to optimize women's health. This study of women attending premarital clinics in the Islamic Republic of Iran aimed to evaluate the impact of a health education workshop on their health locus of control and self-efficacy in physical activity. The design was a randomized controlled trial with a questionnaire before and after the intervention. At post-intervention, there were significant increases in scores of internal health locus of control and self-efficacy in the experimental group (n = 109) compared to the control group (n = 101). It was concluded that a short-term health education may empower women to adopt healthy lifestyles.